The First World War Reason, Results And effects
First world war –
The first world war began on 28 july 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918. The first world war was the prevailing world war of europe. A total of 36 countries participated in this, reason of which it is called the first world war.
War states –
Allied nations – England, France, Russia, America, Japan, Italy, Serbia, Portugal, Roumania, China, India, Cuba, Panama, Brazil, Canada, Australia And South Africa.
Axis Nations – Germany, Austria – Hungry, Turkey And Bulgaria.
● Reason to the first world war –
The start of the first world war was reason to the assassination of the crown prince Ferdy nend of Austria in 1914 AD. But this was not an accidental event. It’s backdrop was set by the interests, policies and events of european states from 1870 AD to 1914 AD.
The causes of first world war can be divided into three parts.
(A) Underlying Reason
(B) International Reason
(C) Immediate Reason
(A) Underlying Reason –
Secret Treaties And Grouping – The main reason for the first world war was factionalism arising out of secret treaties. It started with the defeat of france at the hands of prasha. The main objective of the foreign policy of the Chancellor of Bismarck, the unified Germany, was to keep france with a sense of vengeance friendless. For this, in 1879 AD, he formed a two group by secret treaty with austria. In 1882, he created a threesome against france and russia by the treaty of trimetric covering italy. In October 1883, Bismarck established a tripartite alliance with Germany, Austria and rumanica. Bismarck entered into a treaty of reparation with russia in 1887 AD, bidding from Austria, so that russia could not be oriented towards france. With the resignation of Bismarck in 1890 CE, the foreign policy of Germany underwent redical changes. In 1894, a friendship treaty was signed between russia and france, unhappy with the support of Austria in the Balkan region by jamni : so far, England tried to befriend Germany but England could not succeed in the goal. Seeing the am bition of germany, england started resolving differences with its old enemy, france. In 1904, england and France become friends. In 1904, the treaty was signed in England and russia. Thus, the whole of europe was divided into two groups. These secret treaties and groups encouraged mutual tension and competition. The state involved in the faction was committeed to cooperate with the friendly state in spite of not having self interest.
Armament and militarism – In the second half of the 19th century, military debates and armaments began in Europe. In the past, Germany had defeated Austria and France on the basis of military power. Now France began to increase military power to retaliate the defeat. Russia, defeated by Japan, also started increasing military power. After 1890 AD, Germany expanded the Navy rapidly. Taking this as a challenge, England also started a nine-army increase. Not only this, military officers started dominating the government with this competition of militarism and weaponization.
Radical nationalism – The feeling of nationalism was the product of the French Revolution. Later, a sense of nationalism developed. This resulted in the unification of Germany and Italy. But at the end of the 19th century, this sense of nationalism took a violent form. Each nation is determined to increase its expansion, respect and pride and destroy other countries.
Economic and Colonial Competition – Economic and colonial competition was the reason for the First World War. By the late 19th century, rapid industrial development of England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and America began. Along with this, new markets were needed for the supply of raw materials and product goods. Increasing population and military requirements also motivated colonization. England and France gained the most area in these competitions. Germany lagged behind in this. After 1890 AD, he started efforts to attain colonization. Due to which England and France became his enemies. Russia and Austria started increasing influence in the Balkan region. Italy was also hankering for the colonies. This competition for colonization increased mutual hatred and mistrust.
Newspapers and warlike propaganda – The then newspapers contributed significantly in increasing the animosity, hostility and wars between European countries. England newspapers were criticizing the policies of the German emperor. On the other hand, Germany newspapers were publishing harsh articles against France and England. After the assassination of the Crown Prince of Austria, newspapers in Austria and Serbia published provocative articles against each other. Philosophers and thinkers of this period termed war as indispensable for the progress of the nation. Among them, the philosopher Hegel and Malthus are prominent. In order to establish dominance over the world, ideas started becoming very popular among the nations.
Lack of international organization – At this time there was a need for an international institution, which would resolve the mutual disputes of European states and turn them away from war. But unfortunately not having such an institution was also a reason for this world.
(B) International Reason –
Russia Japan Conflict (1904-05) – In the conflict between Russia and Japan, a small Asian country like Japan defeated Russia’s superpower Russia badly. This defeat prevented the expansionary ambition of the Russian Empire in the Far East. Forced Russia now began to take interest in the Balkan region. His intervention here forced Germany to favor Austria and Turkey. Not only this, the defeat of Russia also affected the situation in France. Now Germany started challenging France by taking the side of Morocco.
Morocco crisis – Situation in the north of Africa Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia were under the control of France. In 1905, the Emperor of Germany traveled to Morocco and declared the integrity and independence of Morocco. France opposed it.
Bosnia and Herzgovina dispute – people of all castes lived in these two regions. At the Berlin Congress of 1878, Austria was given the right to govern these territories. The people of these two states wanted to merge with Serbia. On 6 October 1908, Austria merged these territories into its empire. France, England, Italy, Serbia and Russia strongly criticized Austria’s move. On this question, the possibility of invasion of Austria by Serbia and Russia arose. Germany favored Austria. This crisis was averted, but with this act of Austria, anti-Austrian sentiments grew in Serbia.
Agadir Crisis – In 1911, France sent its forces to establish peace in Morocco. Germany opposed this and sent its warship panther to Agadir, a port in Morocco, to protect German interests in Morocco. The incident presented a threat of war between Germany and France.
Balkan War (1912–13 AD) – The Balkan War served to increase the bitterness between European states. After the war, the London conference also failed to resolve the dispute of the Balkan states. Albania was established by this conference at the insistence of Austria. This shocked Serbia’s desire to attain the sea coast. Now Austria’s opposition to Serbia increased even more. Russia’s support for Serbia’s demand strengthened the friendship between the two. Bulgaria suffered the most from the decisions of this conference. Unhappy with the decisions of the conference, Bulgaria was forced to bow to Germany. Disappointed with the decisions of the London Conference, Turkey also went to the asylum of Germany to protect its existence. In fact, the results of the Balkan War gave impetus to armaments and factionalism. According to Grant and Temperley, “no event is as much responsible for the First World War as the Balkan War.”
(C) Immediate Reason –
Austria’s Crown Prince Ferdinand murdered – On 29 June 1914, in the Bosnia’s capital Serajevo, the Crown Prince Ferdinand of Austria and his wife were murdered by two Serb young men on the Surrey Common Road. Both the killers belonged to the Sarva Slavic movement. There was a strong reaction in Austria of this massacre. Being the murdered Serbs, Austria decided to punish Serbia harshly. Austria had the support of Germany. On 23 July 1914, Austria gave an ultimatum to Serbia with harsh conditions. Austria also warned of the consequences if it is not accepted in 48 hours. However, no independent nation could accept it. Nevertheless, within the stipulated period, Serbia accepted most of the demands. But Austria was ready to go to war. On 28 July 1914, Austria declared war against Serbia. On 30 July, Russia announced mobilization in favor of Serbia. On 1 August, the Germans declared war against Russia and on 3 August against France. England also declared war against Germany on 4 August as German forces entered Belgium. Japan joined the war on 23 August and Turkey on 29 October.
● Results And Effects Of First World War –
36 countries participated in this great war. This war lasted for 4 years 3 months 11 days. In the latter era its results and effects were seen in every field.
Massive loss of public money – Around six and a half crore soldiers from both sides participated in the First World War. Out of this, 1 crore 30 lakh soldiers were killed. 20 million soldiers were injured. Out of these 70 lakh soldiers were disabled. A large number of people were killed by massacres, starvation, disease. Both sides spent one trillion and six billion dollars on this war.
Abolition of autocratic monarchies – This world war ended the autocratic monarchies of Germany, Russia, Austria and Turkey. People’s representative rule was established in these countries.
Rise of new states – After this great war many changes were made on the world map by peace treaties. New states like Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland, Poland etc. emerged. Democratic states were established in all these states.
Increase in the influence of the United States – World War I increased America’s power and political influence. President Wilson played an important role not only in war but also in peace conference. In the war, the US proved itself an economic superpower by giving large amounts of loans to the Allies.
Armament – After the First World War, the competition of armament in place of neutralization was encouraged. During the war, on the one hand the victorious nations started to regain the lost honor and on the other hand to retaliate the gains received by the victorious nation.
Establishment of the League of Nations – One of the main reasons for the First World War was the lack of any international organization. Which could have tried to avert war. The League of Nations was established at the insistence of the US President. Although this institution did not prove to be successful in its objective but it was a new experiment at international level.
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